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云南财经大学 英语思辨 复习资料

Unit1

Part1

1.Critical thinking involves thinking about thinking

2.The availability heuristic involves unconsciously assigning a probability to a type of event based on how often one thinks of events of that type.

3.An issue simply raises a question.

4.The part of an argument that provides a reason for accepting the other part is called the premise.

5.A general rule we unconsciously follow in estimating probabilities is called a heuristic.

Part2

1.The conclusion of an argument is what the premise supposedly supports

or demonstrates.

2.The tendency to weigh negative evidence more heavily than positive

evidence is called a negativity bias.

3.A(n)argument presents a consideration for accepting a claim.

4.Assuming that society in general shares the views held by us and the people we know is the falseconsensus effect.

Part3

1.“President Lincoln was the finest U.S.President in history”is an

objective claim.(F)

2.Whether an objective claim is true or false depends on whether people

think it is true or false.(F)

3.Critical thinking should include biases or emotions.(F)

4.Experienced philosophers or other specialists in their fields rarely make mistakes in reasoning.(F)

Part4

1.Educated guesses or rules of thumb are often called heuristics

2.Emotion,greed,and bias are all factors that can undermine critical

thinking.

3.What are the ultimate objectives of thinking critically?(Check all that apply.)(C,D)

A.To make vise decisions

B.To come to correct conclusions

C.To make hasty generalization

D.To develop adversary thinking

4.All Dobermans are dogs.Some dogs like to bark.Therefore some Dobermans like to bark.The tendency to accept this argument at first glance may be due to.

(D)

A.self-serving bias

B.negativity bias

C.confirmation bias

D.belief bias

5.This bias is present when most members of a group think they are better at something than most other members of the group.(A)

A.Better-than-average illusion

B.Fundamental attribution error

C.Belief bias

D.Bandwagon effect

6.What bias is in effect when you assume that the candidate whose name you see the most often is probably the most popular candidate?(B)

A.Obedience to authority

B.Availability heuristic

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